Optimal Design and Performance Analysis of a Hybrid off Grid Renewable Power System Considering Different Component Scheduling, PV Modules and Solar Tracking System

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P. Ranjith Kumar, M. Sangeetha, K. Vijayan, P. Lilly Florence, Kannan, C. Senthamarai


As electric distribution technology steps into the next century, many trends are becoming noticeable that will change the requirements of energy delivery. These modifications are being driven from both the demand side where higher energy availability and efficiency are desired and from the supply side where the integration of distributed generation and peaks having technologies must be accommodated. Power systems currently undergo considerable change in operating requirements mainly as a result of deregulation and due to an increasing amount of distributed energy resources (DER). In many cases DERs include different technologies that allow generation in small scale (micro sources) and some of them take advantage of renewable energy resources (RES) such as solar, wind or hydro energy. Having micro sources close to the load has the advantage of reducing transmission losses as well as preventing network congestions. Moreover, the possibility of having a power supply interruption of end-customers connected to a low voltage (LV) distribution grid (in Europe 230 V and in the USA 110 V) is diminished since adjacent micro sources, controllable loads and energy storage systems can operate in the islanded mode in case of severe system disturbances. This is identified nowadays as a micro grid. Figure 1.1 depicts a typical micro grid. The distinctive micro grid has the similar size as a low voltage distribution feeder and will rare exceed a capacity of 1 MVA and a geographic span of 1 km. Generally more than 90% of low voltage domestic customers are supplied by underground cable when the rest is supplied by overhead lines. The micro grid often supplies both electricity and heat to the customers by means of combined heat and power plants (CHP), gas turbines, fuel cells, photovoltaic (PV) systems, wind turbines, etc. The energy storage systems usually include batteries and flywheels. The storing device in the micro grid is equivalent to the rotating reserve of large generators in the conventional grid which ensures the balance between energy generation and

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